August 20, 2014 § Leave a comment
A Dezeen/Mini collaborative exhibition, called Frontiers – The Future of Mobility, opens at designjunction (in the Sorting Office, New Oxford Street) on 17th September as part of London Design Week. Work on display includes that of Keiichi Matsuda, who looks at the use of augmented reality to superimpose information and signage (pictured); Dominic Wilcox who suggests that, when cars are fully-automated, safety features such as airbags and crumple zones are no longer needed – and thus cars can be made of anything, even intricate stained-glass windows; Alexandra Daisy Ginsberg, who explores ‘repair ecologies’ and how genetically-engineered synthetic, biological vehicles could evolve and mutate as they are used and repaired, according to their environments; Matthew Plummer-Fernandez, developing 3D-printed dashboard figurine ‘avatars’ to communicate with drivers; and Pernilla Ohrstedt, predicting how cars could collect detailed 3D scans for mapping and the creation of virtual-reality worlds.
- A little primer on behavioural insights and ‘nudge’ theory in relation to transport here from SDG; a further summary of this… it’s about the ideas that: people are creatures of habit and like to be consistent, but are not always logical in their decisions; they are influenced by other people and seek their approval, but the sacrifices they are prepared to make to change their habits are actually quite small; decisions (as in what mode of transport to use) are often based on mental short-cuts and misinformed perceptions; decisions are influenced by short-term gains, relative to context (again, not always logical); ‘sticks’ are more effective than ‘carrots’ in changing behaviour; but for successful outcomes, people need to feel empowered or positive about change rather than that they have no choice.
- And on a not dissimilar theme, a new paper in Transport Geography warns that, unless “transport taboos” – interlinked factors which might harm governmental or business interests or social order, including social inequality of planned measures, social/psychological functions of mobility, lobbying, inequality in contributions towards emissions and transport volumes – are addressed, “it will be difficult to achieve significant emission reductions in passenger transport”. (thanks @RachelAldred).
- Yet… ‘active’ commuters – walking or cycling – and public transport users are less likely to be overweight than those driving, with a lower body mass index, research from the School of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, UCL and Imperial College finds. Here’s, for interest/reference, the survey questionnaire.
- Oh, and those cycling, walking or getting the train are happier and more satisfied with their commutes than drivers, too – at least, those journeying to McGill University, Montreal are. Metro and bus passengers are less happy, however, with bus-takers factoring in the most time for journey delays. Paper’s in Transportation Research Part F (September 2014).
- Well, NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden, the ashes of Saab) has produced a prototype electric 9-3… Series-production, who knows?
- Natural gas, whether powering vehicles directly in an ICE, used to generate electricity for EVs, or used to generate hydrogen for fuel cell cars, shows an improvement over coal or oil in all three scenarios, reports a team from University of Michigan, which has done a series of lifecycle analyses. Detailed lowdown and references here at Green Car Congress.
August 19, 2014 § Leave a comment
ZF Friedrichshafen is showing its Innovation Truck concept at the upcoming 2014 IAA Commercial Vehicles Show in Hannover, which has a clever tablet app-controlled remote manouevering function handy for squeezing a long tractor-trailer combi into small spaces around a depot, for example. Cleverer than this, however, is its satellite navigation-based PreVision GPS system, which directly feeds location and map data into the transmission to select the optimum gearshift for the upcoming terrain or road topography, or to prevent an unsuitable gearshift which might compromise fuel efficiency, anticipating factors such as steep hills, ongoing sections of mountainous roads, or sharp bends and sudden curves. PreVision GPS can also work with the ‘coasting’ function to simply decouple the driveline when the truck is rolling (down a gentle slope, for example) and to predict when the transmission should be put back into gear, or to apply brakes as necessary.
These anticipatory gearshift strategies have the potential to reduce journey times as well as fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions, smoothing out progress and maintaining optimum speeds. All this works in tandem with the TraXon Hybrid module, mounted in the clutch bell housing. This integrates a 120kW motor and enables functions including all-electric driving at low speeds and for short distances, boosting of the combustion engine, start-stop to cut the engine when idling, and energy recuperation, which can direct otherwise wasted energy for auxiliary power supply to items such as cooler units and to electrical features in the driver’s cab. It has the potential to facilitate additional functions such as ‘coasting’ (engine switch-off at speed) as well as the fitment of quiet, efficient electric PTOs (Power Take-Offs) rather than noisier mechanical units, as currently used in vehicles such as municipal waste lorries or ambulances operating in residential areas. Its projected fuel saving is around 5%. Lots more detail to be found here.
- However, a reminder that not everyone’s into apps: recent research by Deloitte found that 31% of UK smartphone owners do not download any apps each month. This is up from around one in five in 2013. Of those who do download apps, the average is down to 1.82 a month, and nearly nine out of ten never spend money on apps or other smartphone content, reports The Telegraph. This suggests that less tech-savvy (or less tech-interested) people (including those in older age-groups) are now owning smartphones.
- A recycling story: used cigarette butts can be reformed into a carbon-based material to coat electrodes in super-capacitors, research at Seoul National University has found.
- And another one: a team from MIT has developed a process to turn materials from old lead-acid car batteries into perovskite solar cells (PSCs), tipped to be the next big thing in PV energy capture, and solving the issues around safe disposal of old batteries and where to get the lead for the PSCs in one. More, incl academic references, here at Green Car Congress.
- Sticking with a range of up to 100 miles is the optimum for EV drivers in terms of battery and range-related vehicle costs, claims a paper in Transportation Science, at least until EV batteries become cheaper.
- There’s a useful cost of travel index from the RAC Foundation; graph shows that the cost of motoring has risen far less steeply (and has levelled off) in comparison to the general cost of living, and bus, coach and rail travel in the last ten years. And that’s before this upcoming rise in rail fares takes effect…
August 18, 2014 § Leave a comment
The annual concours d’elegance and classic car show at Pebble Beach, just outside Monterey in California, has traditionally been the preserve of historic supercars and luxury limousines, as well as a showcase for the bespoke car-makers – and now some electric vehicles are (quietly) creeping into the mix of exotics on display. Not mainstream, mass-market transport solutions, to be sure, but some indicator that EVs can play the status symbol/rich boys’ toys game as well? The Renovo Coupe (built by a Silicon Valley-based start-up) is effectively an electric Shelby Daytona CSX9000 with modifications to swap in a twin-motor e-powertrain, delivering 493bhp (Euro) and 1000lb ft of torque, 0-60 in 3.4 seconds and 120mph-plus, reports Autocar; it has a range of around 100 miles. Some more detail at Car and Driver. Also at Pebble Beach: Saleen Foursixteen, a tuned-up $152,000Tesla Model S.
- Some useful references to Australian research on suburban transport access and transport poverty in this Guardian Datablog piece; the poorest residents spend the highest proportion of their income on petrol, especially in outer areas where public transport is lacking. The further away from Melbourne city centre and train stations people live, the more likely these poorest households are to have two or more cars, and this trend is rising steeply (up 93% 2001-11). It seems that this blog is in response to comments by Aussie Treasurer Joe Hockey that “poor people don’t have cars or don’t actually drive very far”, for which he has now apologised; the most disturbing thing about this is, perhaps, not so much that the guy was offensive or rude but that someone in such a senior governmental position could be so poorly-informed and just plain wrong in his claims.
- An outline of transport demand management policy from the Sustainable Cities Collective, concludes that “the smartest city is not the one that eliminates cars, but the one that can integrate them into a sustainable network of urban mobility options”. This school of thought takes on “a set of strategies that maximize urban mobility by limiting the unnecessary use of private cars”, looking at factors including better integration of driving with other modes of transport, improving safety for all road users through better road design and speed limits, regulating parking and improving the transport options available to people, it says.
- Lausanne Polytechnic is leading a development project on 15-second ‘flash-charging’ of electric buses, with the first TOSA-equipped buses to go into service in Geneva in 2017, reports AutoblogGreen. Charging is via a swing-out robotic arm from the roof of the (solar-panelled) bus stop.
- Are we really ready for the hydrogen economy in transport? Not just yet, according to Joan Ogden of the Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis: “hydrogen faces a range of challenges, from economic to societal, before it can be implemented as a large scale transportation fuel”, she writes. Stumbling points include funding, investor and consumer confidence, and fuelling/supply infrastructure, rather than technical challenges, but there are positive trends and “we seem to be tantalizingly close to a hydrogen transition”. Full research white paper here.
August 14, 2014 § Leave a comment
The global market for light-duty plug-in vehicles will grow by nearly 25% year on year to 2023, predicts the latest report from Navigant Research. Top cities for EV adoption will be Los Angeles, Paris and Tokyo, with North America the strongest market; nearly 100,000 PEVs were sold there last year. 2013 also saw sales of 30,000 PEVs in Japan, 23,000 in the Netherlands (dominated by plug-in hybrids such as the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, I believe), and 17,000 in China. Still tiny numbers in the great scheme of things, but Navigant is expecting sales of over 514,000 a year in the US in 2013.
- OK, latest UK road traffic statistics: for Q2 April-June 2014, all traffic was up 1.4% to 77.1billion vehicle miles (compared to Q2, 2013); car and light-goods traffic rose by 1% and 3.5% respectively; traffic volumes increased across all road classifications. Traffic increased – and average speeds decreased on A-roads.
- BMW Group Asia is partnering with California-based Greenlots to develop an open-standard EV charging network for Singapore. Using Open Charge Point Protocol (OCCP) charger-to-network comms tech, this will cover home/workplace charging, public charging points and assistance services, accessed and billed via the ChargeNow system plus Greenlots apps. More here.
- EV buyers in France are being offered up to 10,000 euros ‘scrappage’ if they’re sending a diesel car to the crusher: nominally, sounds like a good idea to improve local air quality, if a little less carbon- and energy-friendly in a well-to-wheel lifecycle analysis… More here. (Thoughtful piece on diesel, particulates, city air quality and the lagging of legislation to tackle it here at Guardian Cities).
- And have just found Automotive World’s Automotive Megatrends Q2 2014 issue – the Connected Car issue.
- Hemp fibres – the waste bits left over from fabric-making or building materials – could be a good substitute for graphene in supercapacitors for energy storage. More here.
- Toyota USA senior VP Bob Carter reckons “we’re on the cusp of the automotive hydrogen age”. Speaking at the JP Morgan Auto Conference in NY this week, he noted that though initially hydrogen may be more expensive than gasoline (and indeed, electricity), longer-term running costs will come down. Full text of his speech here; “of all the advanced powertrain systems we have in our portfolio…we see hydrogen fuel cells as being THE no-compromise, primary-option vehicle for the NEXT 100 years”, he says. Another interesting snippet from his speech: Toyota’s US sales to buyers born after 1980 (Gen Y or millennials) doubled 2009-2012 (to 2.5million a year) and rose 20% in the next two years, with a further 10% rise expected this year to reach 3.5million a year. Which bucks the kids-not-buying-cars trend.
August 11, 2014 § Leave a comment
A practical approach to multi-passenger transport in the Philippines: COMET (City Managed Optimised Electric Transport), proposed as a replacement for the archaic, diesel-burning and pollution-spewing ‘jeepneys’ used in the region. An open-sided 18-seater, it’s developed and built by Pangea Motors of Vancouver, Washington, and will be marketed by Global Electric Transportation, reports AutoblogGreen.
- A-ha, ‘peak petrol': Navigant Research is predicting that global gasoline demand will start to decline from 2021. It’ll continue to rise until then, to 367.3 billion gallons a year, then drop, they say; however, rather than electric vehicles having much of an effect, “the most impactful fuel savings strategy is likely to come from fuel efficiency improvements in the conventional vehicle platform and the internal combustion engine (ICE)”, says analyst Scott Shepard, citing engine downsizing and lowering of vehicle weights as well as electrification. “The anticipated effects of climate change are driving international cooperation on mitigation efforts, including reducing oil consumption in the transportation sector,” he notes. “Markets for both vehicles and fuels have gradually begun to respond to these efforts, and alternative fuels ‑ including electricity, natural gas, and biodiesel ‑ are beginning to have an impact on global oil demand.” More in the report, Transportation Forecast: Global Fuel Consumption.
- Uber: expanding into car-pooling territory, starting beta-testing of its new UberPool app to match up co-riders. More here. Oh yeah, and Lyft too, with its Lyft Line app now in trials in San Francisco. Note the NYT’s emphasis on its use by commuters – the Lyft lot see this as a viable way to get around on a routine, daily basis.
- The Cenex/Technology Strategy Board-funded EV-Lite project has ended, with the resulting battery pack showing a 41% reduction in weight and a 63% reduction in the cost of non-cell components. Five patent applications have been made, including for a system to isolate cells in an accident. More here.
- A useful tool for potential EV-buyers (in the US): ITS-Davis has developed a website called EV Explorer allowing a detailed comparison of EV vs ICE running costs, taking into account factors including charging power and journey frequency.
- As someone who now (for much, if not all, of my time) works from home but who had a commute-from-hell for many years, I find this hard to believe: very few people actually want a zero-time commute, plenty like the separation between work and home, according to this piece and the research cited at Citylab.com. Something worth considering when assessing urban transport – it’s not just about the transport modes themselves. (And some more from Citylab on incentives – namely, free parking – on commuting by car. Remember the role of the employer…). Some useful references.
- Siemens is running a trial of overhead (“catenary”) charging for electric/PHEV trucks on a two-mile stretch of highway between the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. More, including diagrams, here.
- Natural gas, rapidly turning into a ‘thing’ for the auto industry… Mercedes is to debut a CNG-fuelled 7.7-litre truck engine at the IAA in Hanover shortly. CO2 emissions down 22% on a comparable diesel, biogas-compatible. Detailed tech rundown at Green Car Congress.
- Malvern, home of Morgan – and now ElectrAA, an EV club and enthusiasts’ group. Members’ cars include a prototype Morgan Plus E, an electro-converted Mazda RX-7, a Nissan eNV200 and of course, a requisite Tesla. (thanks, @CIRCaCity).
July 31, 2014 § Leave a comment
A handy follow-up to this week’s news about autonomous cars – Volkswagen and Bosch, as part of the EU-funded V-Charge consortium, are developing an automated parking system which allots EVs to charging bays. It’s a smart valet-parking system for car parks (i.e. at train stations or park-and-rides) using sat nav, cameras and ultrasonic sensors; the challenge is going to be working out how to plug the cars in autonomously (induction charging over coils may be the ultimate aim).
And some more on induction charging from the Frauenhofer Institute (IISB) in Erlanger, Germany: best place to install the system is at a car’s front end, they say, allowing the car to be driven closer to the coils and thus enabling smaller coils in clusters on a column (pictured).
- A nifty solution to providing on-street EV chargers: integrate them into street lamp networks and mount them on lampposts. The French-developed Telewatt chargers are about to make their debut in Aix-en-Provence, reports Sustainable Mobility.
- So Tesla’s teaming up with Panasonic to build the ‘gigafactory'; economies of scale a key factor. More here.
- Report on EV sales across Europe from NGO Transport & Environment: T&E’s Electric Vehicles in 2013: A Progress Report (July 2014) crunches some sales figures and says that sales have approximately doubled each year since 2010. Nearly 50,000 plug-in vehicles (incl. plug-in hybrids) were sold in the EU last year (0.4% of the market), with the top-sellers being the Renault Zoe, Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV and Volvo V60 PHEV. The EU accounts for around a quarter of global EV sales, and its annual EV sales figures are expected to exceed 100,000 by 2015, 500,000 by 2021, and 1 million by 2025 – “steady growth” rather than sudden transformation is predicted, with EVs selling alongside other options such as downsized, more efficient ICE vehicles, hydrogen and fuel cell cars.
- And July’s been a record month for EV sales in the UK: 1100-odd registered, OLEV has said.
- Transport for London is running a three-month project with the Energy Saving Trust and RouteMonkey to gather telematics data from van fleets, to help plan a network of rapid-chargers for commercial electric vehicle use. It’s looking for fleets of 10+ vehicles (not necessarily electric) operating within the M25 to take part. More here.
- And a big research programme in the US: the Electric Power Research Institute is working with eight car-makers and 15 utility firms on standardising smart-grid management via the cloud. More here.
- On a gaseous note… Researchers at the University of Illinois, Chicago, have developed a catalytic process to derive syngas (a non-fossil natural gas substitute) from CO2; molybdenum disulfide and an ionic liquid are used to produce the reaction. More, including academic references, here.
July 30, 2014 § Leave a comment
Digging into the data from the National Travel Survey 2013. Britons are travelling fewer miles each year (average 6,584, down 6% from 1995) and making fewer trips away from home (923 a year, the lowest recorded); driving, walking and cycling are all down (though driving and walking still account for 86% of travel), as are trips for shopping (20% of trips), visiting friends and commuting. 81% of men have a driving licence and 68% of women, but only 31% of those aged 17-20 (compared to 85% of 40-49 year-olds), and those in the highest income quintile travel nearly twice as far in a year than those in the lowest-income quintile.
Viewed from a more long-term perspective, however, annual mileage (using all modes) and number of trips are still way up on travel in the 1970s, and though average distance travelled over a year has fallen since the mid-’90s, average trip length is up 12% (to 7.1 miles), as is trip time (up 16% to 23.7 minutes). In 2013, 18% of trips were less than a mile, 67% less than five miles, 95% less than 25 miles; 77% of the total distance and 64% of all trips travelled were by car; walking accounted for 22% of trips, rail for 3% and buses 7%, though train travel was 10% of distance and buses just 5%.
Interestingly, trips by private transport (including walking, cycling, motorbike etc) are down 18% from 1995/7; men travel further than women, but take fewer trips; cycling is down but distances travelled is up (by 55%, in London). Public transport now accounts for 11% of trips, though people only use public transport on average 106 times a year. Public transport use has risen most steeply in London – bus trips are up 45% and surface rail trips up 67% since 1995/7, though bus use has declined outside London. Bus use is highest among young people – and those who have never worked or who are long-term unemployed. Anyway, much more detail – including on reasons for travel, regional and other demographic differences, licence-holding, car occupancy, ownership and mileage, – is in the full statistical release.